Indoor Air Quality Testing in Singapore deals with the content of indoor air that could affect health and comfort of the building occupants. The IAQ may be compromised by microbial contaminants (mold and bacteria), chemicals (carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, formaldehyde, VOC, ozone), and other physical parameters (temperature, humidity, air velocity, particulates) that can induce health effects.
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has found that indoor air is two to five times more polluted than outdoor air, and considers contaminants in indoor air among the top five environmental risks to public health.
Indeed, indoor air is often a greater health hazard than the corresponding outdoor setting. Proper Usage of ventilation to dilute contaminants, filtration, and source control are the primary methods for improving indoor air quality in most buildings.
IAQ problems are suspected if people generally develop symptoms within a few hours of starting work inside the building and feel better after leaving the building. People working inside these energy conserved buildings (tight buildings), often experience symptoms such as headaches, fatigue, shortness of breath, sneezing and coughing, dizziness, nausea, dryness and eye, nose, throat and skin irritation, hypersensitivity and allergies. In reality, the occupants are simultaneously exposed to a wide variety of indoor air contaminants.
Similarly with any other occupational illness, not all people are affected. The more sensitive or more exposed people will experience symptoms sooner. Susceptibilities of individuals to the contaminants may vary and some may be sensitized with continued exposure. As indoor air quality deteriorates and/or the duration of exposure increases, more people tend to be affected and the symptoms tend to be more serious.
As the best air quality testing companies in Singapore, HVAC servicing Engineers are trained in conducting indoor air quality test and consultation .Our IAQ consultants have extensive experience in healthcare facilities, commercial properties, industrial facilities, and more.
The occupants of a building are the main source of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is a normal constituent of exhaled breath and is commonly measured as a screening tool to evaluate whether adequate volumes of fresh outdoor air are being introduced into indoor air.
The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) recommend a concentration of Carbon dioxide no more than 700 ppm above the ambient air (outside) concentration in order to minimize human odours and maintain comfort.
One of the most acutely toxic indoor air contaminants is carbon monoxide (CO), a colorless, odorless gas produced by incomplete combustion of fuels.
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are a wide variety of liquid and solid chemicals that easily evaporate. SS554: 2016 recommends the level of TVOC not exceed 100ppb for indoor environment.
Formaldehyde (HCHO) is a colorless gas which has a distinctive, pungent odor at higher concentrations. SS554: 2016 recommends the level of formaldehyde not exceed 0.08 ppm for indoor environment.
Ozone is a respiratory irritant produced by equipment that uses high voltage electricity. Photocopiers and certain electric devices such as air ionizers can release ozone into the indoor environment. SS554: 2016 recommends that ozone levels not exceed 0.1ppm.
Airborne dust particles are a common problem, come from both indoor and outdoor sources. SS554: 2016 recommends that particulates PM 2.5 and PM 4 micrometers in diameter be maintained at less than 37.5 and 50 micrograms of particulates per cubic meter of air (µg/m3).
There is no “ideal” temperature, air flow and relative humidity suitable for all building occupants. To achieve maximum occupant comfort ASHRAE recommends temperature level between 22.5° C to 25.5° C; airflow less than 30m/s; and relative humidity levels should be maintained below 70%.
Microbiological organisms, such as fungi and bacteria are always present in indoor as well as outdoor air and vary tremendously both seasonally and from place to place. The presence of some microorganisms in large quantities in an indoor environment, also known as Sick Building Syndrome (SBS), may cause adverse health effects in some people.
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